xuân diệu được mệnh danh là gì

Xuân Diệu

Xuân Diệu in his youth.

Xuân Diệu in his youth.

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BornFebruary 2, 1916
Phước Hòa Commune, Tuy Phước District, Tỉnh Bình Định, French Indochina
DiedDecember 18, 1985 (aged 69)
Hanoi, Vietnam
Resting placeMai Dịch Cemetery, Hanoi, Vietnam
Pen nameXuân Diệu, Trảo Nha
OccupationPoet, journalist, literary critic
Literary movementThơ mới
Notable works
  • Thơ thơ
  • Gửi mùi hương mang đến gió
Notable awardsHo Chi Minh Prize

Ngô Xuân Diệu (Vietnamese: [swən˧˧ ziəw˧˨ʔ]; February 2, 1916 – December 18, 1985) was a Vietnamese poet, journalist, short-story writer, and literary critic, best known as one of the prominent figures of the twentieth-century Thơ mới mẻ (New Poetry) Movement. Heralded by critics as "the newest of the New Poets",[1] Xuân Diệu rose đồ sộ popularity with the collection Thơ thơ (1938), which demonstrates a distinct voice influenced by Western literature, notably French symbolism. Between 1936 and 1944, his poetry was characterized by a desperation for love, juxtaposed with a desire đồ sộ live and đồ sộ experience the beauty of the world. After joining the Vietnamese Communist Party in 1945, the themes of his works shifted towards the Party and their resistance against the French and the Americans. When he died in 1985, he left behind about 450 poems, as well as several short stories, essays, and literary criticisms.

Although his love poems use expressions and pronouns that are more commonly associated with heterosexual relationships, Xuân Diệu was confirmed by many, including his close friends, đồ sộ be gay. According đồ sộ the writer Tô Hoài,[2] his homosexuality was known amongst his fellow soldiers during their time in the revolutionary base, which had at some point led đồ sộ admonishments from the military. To this day, the impact of his sexual orientation on his poetry remains a topic of discussion.[3][4]


Ngô Xuân Diệu was born in his mother's hometown of Gò Bồi in Phước Hòa Commune, Tuy Phước District, Tỉnh Bình Định Province.[5] His father was Ngô Xuân Thọ, and his mother was Nguyễn Thị Hiệp. Due đồ sộ Vietnamese traditions, only the hometown of a child's father would be counted as the hometown of the child, thus his official hometown was the village of Trảo Nha in Can Lộc District, thành phố Hà Tĩnh Province. Later in his life, he would use the name of the village as a pseudonym.

Xuân Diệu lived in Tuy Phước District until he was eleven years old, when he traveled southward đồ sộ study in Quy Nhơn.[6]

Entry into literature[edit]

In 1936, Xuân Diệu was enrolled in the lycée Khải Định in Huế, where he met the young poet Huy Cận and received his baccalauréat in 1937. He then left for Hanoi, where he studied law and joined the left-wing Self-Strengthening Literary Union (Tự Lực văn đoàn), mostly composed of young Vietnamese writers who studied under the colonial education system and were well-versed in both Vietnamese and Western literature. He was a late comer đồ sộ the group, which by then had established themselves as a powerful platform for Vietnamese intellectuals, publishing romance novels that entertained the crowd alongside satirical works that lambasted both contemporary society and the French administration.[7] Amongst his peers in the group was Thế Lữ, whose fantastical poetry and horror short stories were inspired by French romanticism and Edgar Allan Poe.[8] According đồ sộ literary critics Hoài Thanh and Hoài Chân, Xuân Diệu borrowed the same inspiration from romanticism, yet he "burned the utopian scenery and ushered the audience back into the real world."[9] They acknowledged Charles Baudelaire's influence on Xuân Diệu, compared aspects of his poetry đồ sộ Anna de Noailles and André Gide, and judged him as the pinnacle of French-influenced Vietnamese poetry.[10][11]

First Indochina War[edit]

Between 1938 and 1940, Xuân Diệu lived with poet and alleged partner Huy Cận[12] at 40 Hàng Than Street in Hanoi.[13] After nhật bản entered French Indochina in September 1940, many members of Xuân Diệu's literary group began đồ sộ focus entirely on politics, including the founder Nhất Linh. Near the kết thúc of the year, Xuân Diệu departed for Mỹ Tho and worked as an official. Some of the remaining members, including Khái Hưng, Hoàng Đạo and Nguyễn Gia Trí, were arrested by the French and imprisoned in the faraway Sơn La Prison, marking the beginning of the demise of the group. When Xuân Diệu returned đồ sộ Hanoi in 1942, most of the writers with whom he once worked had drifted apart or considered joining the anti-colonial resistance led by Ho Chi Minh. He pursued writing as a full-time career for two years, before joining the revolutionaries in Việt Bắc in 1944. Instead of combatting on the front line, Xuân Diệu stayed behind đồ sộ write in tư vấn of the independence movement. In the memoir Cát vết mờ do bụi chân ai of the writer Tô Hoài, it was also during this time that Xuân Diệu had a few sexual encounters with his comrades, including Tô Hoài himself, and was reprimanded by the commanders.[14]

Interwar period[edit]

A house on Điện Biên Phủ Road, formerly Cột Cờ Road. Xuân Diệu lived at 24 Cột Cờ Road, in an apartment above Huy Cận's family until his death in 1985.

After the Việt Minh gained victory in 1954, Xuân Diệu returned đồ sộ Hanoi and published both as a poet and as a journalist. In 1956, he married 27-year-old director Bạch Diệp, but the relationship was not consummated and the pair quickly separated.[15][16] While Bạch Diệp was later remarried đồ sộ another man, Xuân Diệu lived alone in an apartment right above the house of Huy Cận, who was now married đồ sộ Xuân Diệu's younger sister, Ngô Xuân Như.

Between 1955 and June 1958, Xuân Diệu was embroiled in the famous Nhân Văn-Giai Phẩm affair. As the First Indochina War had come đồ sộ an kết thúc, and some reforms of the new administration had led đồ sộ disastrous results, dissenting voices began đồ sộ rise amongst those who had supported the Việt Minh and were now demanding the freedom đồ sộ criticize the wrongdoings of the government. Although the government did come đồ sộ admit their mistakes, the movement soon developed from criticism of the government đồ sộ personal attacks and calls for a major overhaul,[17] causing a rift between pro-government writers and dissenters lượt thích Lê Đạt or Trần Dần. In the kết thúc, Xuân Diệu, along with Huy Cận and others, took the side of the government; in a scathing response published in May 1958, he accused the likes of Lê Đạt, Hoàng Cầm and Trần Dần of "capitalistic individualism" and "attempting đồ sộ poison our atmosphere of prose and poetry, which means that we should wipe them out, that we should cleanse them."[18]

Later years[edit]

As tensions rose between North and South Vietnam leading up đồ sộ the Vietnam War, Xuân Diệu continued đồ sộ write in tư vấn of the communist efforts against U.S. and South Vietnamese forces. He also translated a variety of foreign-language writers, including Nâzım Hikmet, Nicolás Guillén, and Alexander Pushkin. His first works of literary analysis, released in the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s, explored the cultural significance of classic Vietnamese poets lượt thích Nguyễn Du and Hồ Xuân Hương, the latter of whom was given the sobriquet "the Queen of Nôm poetry"[19] that is still invoked by other writers generations later.

In the last two decades of his life, Xuân Diệu became an advocate for young writers. He wrote the book Conversation with Young Poets in 1961 đồ sộ give some advice both as an experienced writer and as an enthusiast who wished đồ sộ see Vietnamese poetry flourish in the future.[20] When a ten-year-old boy named Trần Đăng Khoa from Thành Phố Hải Dương Province gained attention with his flair for poetry, Xuân Diệu himself went đồ sộ meet the boy and offered đồ sộ proofread his first poetry collection. In his later reminiscences, Khoa remarked on how Xuân Diệu mentored him as he grew up and changed his writing style. By the time Khoa became an adult, he visited the senile poet at his apartment in Hanoi and noticed that Xuân Diệu had become occupied with thoughts of death and old age, yet devoted himself đồ sộ writing poetry anyway.[21]


On December 18, 1985, Xuân Diệu died at his home page from a sudden heart attack. His life-long friend Huy Cận was said đồ sộ have demanded that the funeral be postponed until he could come back from Dakar, Senegal;[22] đồ sộ his dismay, the funeral was carried out soon after and was attended by a lot of Vietnamese artists at the time,[23] including Xuân Diệu's ex-wife Bạch Diệp and composer Văn Cao, whom he had publicly insulted during the Nhân Văn-Giai Phẩm affair.[24][25] Xuân Diệu was laid đồ sộ rest in Mai Dịch Cemetery on the outskirts of Hanoi.


A prolific writer, Xuân Diệu left behind an abundance of poems, short stories, notes, and essays. His two major poetry collections are Thơ thơ (1938) and Gửi mùi hương mang đến gió (Casting Fragrance đồ sộ the Wind, 1945), and his only published short story collection is titled Phấn thông vàng (Gold Pine Pollens, 1939).

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Haraucourt's "Rondel de l'adieu".

The writing style of Xuân Diệu, along with the French influence on his poetry, is best exemplified in the collection Thơ thơ (1938). The title of the collection itself is hard đồ sộ be translated, for the second word "thơ" can mean both "poetry" or "young", giving rise đồ sộ two possible interpretations: either "young poetry" or "poetic poetry". Both interpretations fit with the general ideas of the collection, which praises youth and the glory of life through a combination of symbolic imagery[26] and multiple poetic devices. An often-cited excerpt that reflects these ideas comes from the poem "Yêu" ("Love"):

Love is just a little bit of death in the heart,
For how often can one love in certainty that love will be returned?
Giving ví much love, and receiving ví little of it;
Because people are fickle, or indifferent? Who knows?
(Neil Jamieson's translation)[27]

The opening line was inspired by its equivalent in Edmond Haraucourt's "Rondel de l'adieu": "Partir, c'est mourir un peu". At the same time, the overall sentiment of the four lines is shared by other poems in the collection, which express the speaker's pessimism with regards đồ sộ love, along with his fear of disappointment. In the poem "Vội vàng" ("In Haste"), which is currently included in Vietnam's high school curriculum, Xuân Diệu also described an obsession with the passage of time[28] and the existential dread that nature "does not prolong the youth of mankind". These feelings have been attributed by some recent writers đồ sộ him grappling with his sexual orientation,[29][30] but whatever the case might be, the fears and obsessions are all in accord with the speaker's eventual yearning for intimacy and the decision đồ sộ rebel against the brevity of life. In his foreword đồ sộ Gửi mùi hương mang đến gió (Casting Fragrance đồ sộ the Wind, 1945), Xuân Diệu wrote:

Perched on a branch, the bird longs for its brook—
it will break into tuy vậy and not know why.
Its ditties cannot make the fruits grow ripe;
its carols cannot help the flowers bloom.
It's profitless đồ sộ sing, and yet the bird
will burst its throat and heart đồ sộ sing its best.
(Huỳnh Sanh Thông's translation)[31]
French poets Paul Verlaine and Arthur Rimbaud, whose relationship was glorified in Xuân Diệu's poem "Tình trai" ("Male Love").

In their analysis, critics Hoài Thanh and Hoài Chân viewed that the liveliness in the verse of Xuân Diệu was emblematic of the Vietnamese youth at the time, who had just been exposed đồ sộ an immense world and, consequently, "the dreariness of the universe and the tragedy of the human fate".[32] In the face of his epiphany, the youthful man chose đồ sộ cling đồ sộ love and reject everything. Such is the idea that also runs through "Tình trai" ("Male Love"), a poem in praise of the relationship between Paul Verlaine and Arthur Rimbaud that tends đồ sộ be referenced as proof of Xuân Diệu's homosexuality:

I remember Rimbaud with Verlaine,
Two male poets, dizzy from drink,
Drunk with strange poems, in love with friendship,
Contemptuous of worn out forms, abandoning familiar ways.
With parallel steps they tread their journey home page,
Two souls with flowery fragrance fresh,
They go—weak hand in strong,
Sharing love songs in breezy mists.
They speak nothing of yesterday or tomorrow;
Forget painted lips and colorful shirts;
Ignore concerns over heaven and hell!
No negotiation possible, they love each other.[33]

After the August Revolution in 1945, these sentiments are less noticeable in his verse, which by then had shifted towards praising the struggles of the people and Ho Chi Minh's independence movement. Like many other intellectuals of his time, including Huy Cận, Thế Lữ, and Nguyễn Huy Tưởng, he was described đồ sộ have been "enlightened" (giác ngộ)[34][35] and graced with a new purpose đồ sộ live.[36] He was involved in the early years of both the Vietnamese Writers' Association and the Journalists' Association, and his writings after the First Indochina War showed a commitment đồ sộ Marxism-Leninism.[37]

Personal life[edit]

Despite his bold literary persona, Xuân Diệu was a secretive individual, with most of the tales regarding his private life being told by his acquaintances before and after his death. His companionship with Huy Cận, with whom he shared a house between 1938 and 1940, has been depicted by Vietnamese and Western sources alike as both an intimate friendship and a romantic relationship.[38][39][40] Huy Cận himself spoke of the time he lived with Xuân Diệu in the poem "Ngủ chung" ("Sleeping Together")[41] from his debut collection Lửa thiêng (Sacred Fire, 1940).

Another alleged muse of his was the poet Hoàng Cát, đồ sộ whom he referred by the kinship term "em" (the common second-person pronoun for women in a heterosexual relationship) in a farewell poem that he penned when Hoàng Cát left for the front line in 1965.[42][43] Hoàng Cát was much younger phàn nàn Xuân Diệu, and in a 2013 interview, he said that he was aware of Xuân Diệu's affections towards him but did not reciprocate them, for he "did not love Xuân Diệu in the way that men and women love one another."[44]

Tô Hoài (1920–2014).

In his memoir Cát vết mờ do bụi chân ai (Dusty Sand on Somebody's Footsteps, 1992), the writer Tô Hoài recalled one of the nights in Việt Bắc in which Xuân Diệu was reprimanded by the military commanders:

"Xuân Diệu just sat and cried. Who knows whether Nam Cao, Nguyễn Huy Tưởng, Trọng Hứa, Nguyễn Văn Mãi, and even lão Hiến, Nghiêm Bình, as well as Đại, Đắc, Tô Sang, and a bunch of other guys had slept with Xuân Diệu or not; naturally, nobody admitted it. I was also silent as a clam. During those wild moments in the seductive darkness of night, I also went a bit crazy— Xuân Diệu was not by any stretch of the imagination alone in this regard. Nobody specifically mentioned these episodes [of homosexual love], but everybody raised their voices, raised their voices severely, harsely criticizing his "bourgeois thinking, his evil bourgeois thinking, which needed đồ sộ be fixed." Xuân Diệu sobbed and said, "it's my homosexuality [tình trai]... my homosexuality," choking on his words with tears flowing, but not promising đồ sộ fix anything at all."[45]

Legacy and recognition[edit]

In their monumental book of literary criticism, Thi nhân nước ta (1932–1941), Hoài Thanh and Hoài Chân recounted the initial surprise and hesitation amongst contemporary Vietnamese writers when Xuân Diệu entered their world with his heavily French-inspired poetry. Nevertheless, as they grew more familiar with the young poet, they "realized that within the graceful elegance of his poetic style was something quintessentially Vietnamese, and [the writers] were all charmed."[46][47] Indeed, Xuân Diệu's new voice has left a considerable impact on modern Vietnamese literature, earning him the Xì Gòn Prize in 1996.[48] Many of his compositions have been phối đồ sộ music, while poems lượt thích "Đây ngày thu tới" ("Here Comes Autumn") and "Vội vàng" ("In Haste") have been included in consecutive versions of the official literature curriculum for Vietnamese high school students.

A view of West Lake, Hanoi.

A memorial hall dedicated đồ sộ him was built in his home page village of Trảo Nha, Can Lộc District, thành phố Hà Tĩnh Province. Many roads and streets are also named after him, including an avenue in Quy Nhơn and a street by the West Lake of Hanoi, which runs through an area where most of the streets bear the names of other notable Vietnamese artists lượt thích Trịnh Công Sơn and Tô Ngọc Vân.[49]

The love poetry of Xuân Diệu, particularly those compiled in Thơ thơ (1938) and Gửi mùi hương mang đến gió (Casting Fragrance đồ sộ the Wind, 1945), is still cherished đồ sộ this day, with Xuân Diệu being hailed as "the King of Love Poetry" (ông hoàng thơ tình),[50] in the same vein as the sobriquet that he had given đồ sộ the eighteenth-century poet Hồ Xuân Hương. In his own anthology Chân dung và đối thoại (Portraits and Dialogues, 1998), the poet Trần Đăng Khoa, who was now forty years old, attributed this quote đồ sộ his late mentor:

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"The writer exists in his works. Without his works, the writer might as well be dead."

Major works[edit]


  • Thơ thơ (1938) – collection of 46 poems
  • Gửi mùi hương mang đến gió (Casting Fragrance đồ sộ the Wind, 1945) – collection of 51 poems
  • "Ngọn quốc kỳ" ("The National Flag", 1945) – long poem
  • Dưới sao vàng (Under the Yellow Star, 1949) – collection of 27 poems
  • Ngôi sao (The Star, 1955) – collection of 41 poems
  • Riêng chung (1960) – collection of 49 poems
  • Mũi Cà Mau – Cầm tay (Cape Cà Mau – Holding Hands, 1962) – collection of 49 poems
  • Tôi nhiều song mắt (1970) – collection of 23 poems
  • Thanh ca (1982)
  • Tuyển luyện Xuân Diệu (1983)


  • Phấn thông vàng (Gold Pine Pollens, 1939) – collection of 17 short stories


  • Những bước đàng tư tưởng của tôi (My Ideological Footsteps, 1958) – memoir
  • Ba đua hào dân tộc (Three Great Poets of the People, 1959) – analysis of the poetry of Nguyễn Trãi, Nguyễn Du, and Hồ Xuân Hương
  • Hồ Xuân Hương bà chúa thơ Nôm (Hồ Xuân Hương, the Queen of Nôm Poetry, 1961)
  • Trò chuyện với chúng ta thực hiện thơ trẻ (Conversation with Young Poets, 1961) – collection of essays
  • Thi hào dân tộc bản địa Nguyễn Du (Nguyễn Du, the Great Poet of the People, 1966) – notes and essay
  • Thơ Trần Tế Xương (The Poetry of Trần Tế Xương, 1970)
  • Đọc thơ Nguyễn Khuyến (Reading the Poetry of Nguyễn Khuyến, 1971)
  • Các thi sĩ truyền thống Việt Nam (Classical Poets of Vietnam, 1981, 1982) – two-volume book of literary analysis


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  2. ^ Tô Hoài: Don’t expect much from old people Archived January 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. (January 10, 2007). VietNamNet Bridge. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
  3. ^ Chu Văn Sơn (2003). Ba đỉnh điểm của thơ mới: Xuân Diệu – Nguyễn Bính – Hàn Mặc Tử. Vietnam Education Publishing House.
  4. ^ Nguyễn Quốc Vinh (1997). "Deviant Bodies and Dynamics of Displacement of Homoerotic Desire in Vietnamese Literature from and about the French Colonial Period (1858–1954)". Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  5. ^ Vương Tâm. "Thi sĩ Xuân Diệu với quê u Gò Bồi". Văn nghệ Công an. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  6. ^ Lại Nguyên Ân and Alec Holcombe (2010). "The Heart and Mind of the Poet Xuân Diệu: 1954–1958". Journal of Vietnamese Studies. 5 (2): 7. doi:10.1525/vs.2010.5.2.1.
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  10. ^ Hoài Thanh and Hoài Chân 2006, p.39
  11. ^ Jamieson, Neil (1992). "Shattered Identities and Contested Images: Reflections of Poetry and History in 20th-Century Vietnam". Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 7 (2): 86–88. JSTOR 40860398. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  12. ^ Mark McLelland and Vera Mackie (2014). Routledge Handbook of Sexuality Studies in East Asia. Taylor & Francis Group. p. 255. ISBN 9781317685746.
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  14. ^ Tô Hoài (2017). Cát vết mờ do bụi chân ai. Writers Association Publishing House.
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  16. ^ Thủy Liên (August 18, 2013). "Vợ cũ Xuân Diệu và những "đời bà xã chồng" ngắn ngủi ngủi". Kienthuc.net.vn. Báo năng lượng điện tử Kiến Thức. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  17. ^ McHale, Shaun (2002). "Vietnamese Marxism, Dissent, and the Politics of Postcolonial Memory: Tran Duc Thao, 1946–1993". The Journal of Asian Studies. 61 (1): 7–10. doi:10.2307/2700187. JSTOR 2700187.
  18. ^ Xuân Diệu (May 1958). "Những biến đổi hoá của công ty nghĩa cá thể tư sản qua chuyện thơ Lê Đạt". Văn nghệ. 13: 33–45.
  19. ^ Xuân Diệu (1961). Hồ Xuân Hương – bà chúa thơ Nôm [Hồ Xuân Hương: the Queen of Nôm Poetry]. Phổ Thông Publishing House.
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  21. ^ "Chuyện chưa chắc chắn về ông tơ rạm tình đằm thắm Xuân Diệu và Trần Đăng Khoa". Zingnews.vn. Zing News. June 3, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  22. ^ Lê Minh Quốc (2016). "Những tình các bạn vô văn chương: Xuân Diệu – Huy Cận xương luồn qua chuyện xương". Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  23. ^ Nguyễn Thụy Kha (January 2, 2016). "Những kỷ niệm nhỏ với cùng 1 thi sĩ rộng lớn [Small memories of a great poet]". Zingnews.vn. Tuổi Trẻ News.
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  26. ^ Hồ Văn Quốc (2016). "Khuynh phía đại diện vô trào lưu thơ mới mẻ (1932–1945) [Symbolism in the New Poetry Movement (1932–1945)]". Tạp chí Khoa học tập và Giáo dục đào tạo, Trường Đại học tập Sư Phạm, Đại học tập Huế. 37 (1): 45–53.
  27. ^ Jamieson, 1992, p.86-87
  28. ^ Ân and Holcombe 2010, p.7
  29. ^ Chu Văn Sơn 2003
  30. ^ Hà Minh Đức (2004). Xuân Diệu: Ông hoàng của thơ thương yêu [Xuân Diệu: The King of Love Poetry]. Vietnam Education Publishing House.
  31. ^ Huỳnh, Sanh Thông (1996). An Anthology of Vietnamese Poems. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300064100.
  32. ^ Hoài Thanh and Hoài Chân 2006, p.132
  33. ^ Ân and Holcombe 2010, p.7-8
  34. ^ "Phẩm hóa học mới mẻ của thơ ca sau Cách mạng [The new qualities of poetry after the August Revolution]". Lao động thủ đô. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  35. ^ "Hình tượng Đảng và lãnh tụ vô thơ ca [The image of the Communist Party and leaders in poetry]". dangcongsan.vn. Báo năng lượng điện tử Đảng Cộng sản nước ta.
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  37. ^ Ân and Holcombe 2010
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  40. ^ McLelland and Mackie 2014
  41. ^ Nguyễn Quốc Vinh 1997
  42. ^ Thiên Kim (January 30, 2016). "Mối "tình trai" ở trong phòng thơ Xuân Diệu và thi sĩ Hoàng Cát". An ninh Thế giới. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  43. ^ Nguyễn Như Bình. "Đề tài đồng tính vô một trong những kiệt tác văn học tập nước ta [Homosexuality in some of Vietnam's literary works]" (PDF). Tạp chí Khoa học tập ĐHSP TPHCM. 49: 151–159.
  44. ^ "Nhà thơ Hoàng Cát: "Xuân Diệu yêu thương, còn tôi chỉ thương"". kienthuc.net.vn. Báo năng lượng điện tử Kiến Thức. May 7, 2013.
  45. ^ Ân and Holcombe 2010, p. 11.
  46. ^ Hoài Thanh and Hoài Chân 2006, pt. 128.
  47. ^ Ân and Holcombe 2010, p.7.
  48. ^ Nguyễn Hữu Sơn (February 24, 2012). "Người đương thời Thơ mới mẻ bàn về thơ Xuân Diệu". Báo năng lượng điện tử Tổ Quốc.
  49. ^ "Đặt thương hiệu trên phố, công trình xây dựng công cộng: Lan lan độ quý hiếm lịch sử dân tộc, nét trẻ đẹp văn hóa". hanoimoi.com.vn. Hà Nội Thủ Đô Mới. July 26, năm 2016.
  50. ^ Hà Minh Đức 2004

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related đồ sộ Xuân Diệu.


  • Xuân Diệu poetry
  • Xuân Diệu poetry collection


  • "Vietnamese Poetry". Archived from the original on September 2, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  • On the phone
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